BASIC MATHS TUTORIAL
Mathematical Signs, Symbols and Definitions
What is the language of division?
What is the language of fractions?
What are square roots, radicals and exponents?
 
   
1. Mathematical Signs, Symbols and Definitions
+
Plus
sign addition 3 + 4
-
Minus
sign of subtraction 4 - 2
X
Multiplication
sign of multiplication: 4 X 2

÷

Division sign
8 / 2
=
Equals
2 + 3 = 9 – 4

Not equal to
2 + 3 = 9 – 6
<
Greater than
8 > 4 or 8 is greater than 4
>
Less than
4 < 8 or 4 is less than 8

Infinity
greater than any number we can write, speak or think

Degree
unit of measurement for an angle; a complete circle has 360°

Pi
used to calculate the circumference and area of a circle; it equals 3.14159
'
Foot
used when measuring distance
"
Inch
used when measuring distance
`
Minute
used to measure parts of a degree; there are 60' in 1°
:
Second
used to measuring parts of a minute; there are 60" in 1'
Perpendicular to
forms a right angle

Parallel to
continues in a straight line and never meets
 
2. What is the Language of Division?
 
   
19
Quotient
result of the division.
   

73

Dividend
number to be divided by the divisor.
Divisor
number by which dividend is to be divided
÷
   
   
8
   
   
1
Reminder
number left over at the end of the division if the divisor doesnot divide the dividend evenly.
 
3. What is the Language of Fraction?
4
Numerator:
Indicates number of parts used.
9
Denominator:
Term below the line that divides the numerator; number of parts into which the whole is divided.
6
7
Proper Fraction:
Numerator is smaller than denominator.
13
4
Improper Fraction:
Numerator is larger than denominator.
2 ¼
Mixed Number:
A whole number and a fraction.
 
4. What are square roots, radicals and exponents?
 

Radical indicates the root of a number. It is usuallyused to indicate square root. For example, 4 = 2, since 2 x 2 = 4. A square root of any number is another number, which, when multiplied by itself, equals that number. Here is another example: 16 = ? The answer is 4, since 4 x 4 = 16.

When the radical is used with a small number in the upper left, it stands for a smaller root. For example 327 = 3, since 3 x 3 x 3 = 27. In the same way 4256 stands for the fourth root of 256 , or a number multiplied by itself four times to equal 256. The answer is 4, since 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 = 256.

A small number written at the upper right hand corner of another number is called an exponent. It is mathematical shorthand to indicate the number of times you have to multiply the number by itself. For example: 2² = 2 x 2 or 4. If we wrote 3³ we would mean 3 x 3 x 3, or 3 multiplied by itself three times.

 
     
 
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